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Database of USA Gunmakers

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B

B. & CO.
 Unidentified. Brass barrel and frame pistol.
B. B.
 Unidentified. Marking on a Kentucky type pistol with silver inlays.
B. E.
 Script Initials of Barney Engle, Greensboro, Greene Co., Pa., before and after 1870. Maker of a late percussion rifle, and a plains rifle, so marked.
B. F. A.
 Inside marking of a commercial, side action, percussion lock, without tumbler stirrup, ornamented with flying geese and floral stamping. Also lock marking of a percussion rifle by R. Haskell, Painesville, Ohio.
B. F. S.
 Unidentified. Flintlock Kentucky rifle. Lock by Wilkes of London, 1810.
B. I.
 Unidentified. Kentucky rifle.
B. M.
 Initials of Benjamin Moore, U. S. Inspector of Arms, 1810-15.
B. T.
 Unidentified marking on circa 1830 Kentucky rifle.
Babbitt, L. W.
 Gunmaker and cutler, 14 Bank St., Cleveland, Ohio. Active 1832-38, perhaps before and after.
BABBITT, L. W.
 Ohio, 1837. Flintlocks.
BABCOCK, J.
 Under hammer percussion pistol with ring hammer.
Babcock, Moses
Gunmaker of Charlestown, Mass., 1777-81. Died at Milton, Mass., May 16, 1789.
BABCOCK, Moses
 Charlestown, Mass. Listed in Directories from 1838 to 1874. Was assistant to Abijah Monroe, gunsmith, then owner of a shop on Charlestown Square 1877-81. Died Aug. 27, 1886.
BACH, John
 52 Commercial St., San Francisco, Calif., 1855; 72 Com mercial 1858-65.
Bachner Bros.
Gunmakers, 72 Hennepin Ave., Minneapolis, Minn., 1869, thence to 36 S. Washington Ave., 1870-80.
BACHNER BROTHERS
 72 Hennepin, later 36 S. Washington Ave., Minneapolis, Minn., 1869-80.
Backhouse, Richard
Owner and operator of the Durham Iron Works, Easton, Penna. The furnace was first put into blast in 1727 and Backhouse remained in charge until 1774. During the Revolution musket barrels and other ordnance was produced here. Active until 1781 or later.
BACKHOUSE, Richard
 Gun-barrel maker of Easton, Pa., 1774-81. Owner and operator of the Durham Iron Works.
BACON & CO.
 Percussion pistols and pepperboxes. See Bacon Arms Co.
Bacon & Co.; Bacon Mfg. Co.; Bacon' Arms Co.
Norwich, Conn. Established 1858 by Thomas K. Bacon, capital $20,000. Produced the Bacon pepperbox pistol and G. W. Iiopkin’s patent 1862 revolvers. In 1888 employed 20 hands and produced 2400 arms per annum. Active until 1890 or later.
BACON ARMS CO.
 Established at Norwich, Conn., by Thomas K. Bacon in 1852. Makers of Bacon percussion pepperboxes, single shot pistols, and of Briggs and C. W. Hopkins type revolvers. Formerly had been Bacon & Co., then Bacon Mfg. Co. The firm ceased operations in 1888. In 1892 the remaining inventory of the Company, amounting to only about $14,000, was taken over by the Crescent Fire Arms Co., of Norwich.
BACON MFG. CO.
 Bacon percussion and cartridge revolvers. See Bacon Arms Co. above.
Badger & Co., George A.
Gunmakers of Concord, N. H. 1865-68.
BAER, J.
 Lancaster, Pa., 1810-1840. Flintlock Kentucky rifles.
BAGGETT, Elijah
 Attleboro, Mass. Contractor under Act of 1798 for 500 Charleville pattern (Model 1795) muskets at $13.40 per stand.
BAGLEY, Albert G.
 Breech-loading, percussion rifle marked on barrel, "ALBERT G. BAGLEY MARCH 1852."
BAHN, B. & BRO.
 Cape Girardeau, Mo., makers of percussion sport ing rifles.
BAHRMANN, G.
 Louisville, Ky. Percussion rifle.
BAILEY, D.
 New Orleans, La. Importer and dealer in firearms, English percussion revolvers known with this marking.
BAILEY, G. L.
 Portland, Me. Maker of half stock, muzzle loading, percussion sporting rifle with Remington barrel.
BAILEY, George
 Phila., Pa. Listed as gunsmith on New Market near Green, in 1829.
BAILEY, Goff
 Kincheloe, W. Va. Percussion rifles.
Bailey, J.
Swordsmith of New York City and Fredericksburg, N. Y. The sword of Major Nathan Goodale is preserved in the Ohio State Museum. Acquired by the Major in 1778 it bears the legend, ''J* Bailey, fecit, Fredericksburg”. • Active 1755-61, before and after.
BAILEY, Nathan
 Gunsmith of New London, Conn., 1776-79. Worked on repair of public arms for the State. Was paid 50 pounds in July, 1775.
BAILEY, Thomas
 Gunsmith, 160 Vz Chartres, New Orleans, La., 1853.
BAILEY, W. A.
 Unlocated. Under-hammer, percussion target pistol.
Bailtey, Nathan
Gunsmith of New London, Conn., 1776-77. Employed by the state producing flintlock muskets. These arms were ordered marked with Bailey's name or initials and the stamp S. C. for the State of Connecticut.
BAIRD, C.
 Vermont. Percussion target pistol with false muzzle and bird's-eye maple shoulder stock.
BAIRD, S. S.
 Chittenden, Vt, percussion period.
Baker & Main
Box 7384, North Kansas City, Mo. Recent custom rifle makers. (Clyde Baker.)
BAKER GUN & FORGING CO.
 Batavia, N. Y. 1911-14. Cal. .22 auto rifles.
Baker Gun & Forging Co., Baker Gun Co.
Originally the Baker Gun & Forging Co., Batavia, New York. Active 1900 to date. Produced "Paragon”, "Batavia Leader”, "Batavia”, "Black Diana” shotguns. Since 1924 the address has been 253 Church St., New York City, and the Arm is now the property of the Folsom Arms Co.9
BAKER, Andrew
 Bedford, Pa., area (?).
BAKER, C.
 Unlocated, Marking on the lock of a percussion sporting rifle.
BAKER, Clyde
 2100 East 59th St., Kansas City, Mo., modern.
BAKER, J.
 Pennsylvania. Kentucky rifle dated "Nov. 28, 1843." Also made 3-barrel swivel breech guns.
BAKER, Jacob S.
 Listed as gunsmith at 386 North Front, Phila., Pa., in 1819. Operated a rifle factory at 916 Front St., in 1824. Again listed as gunsmith on No. Front, corner Otter in 1859.
BAKER, James
 Musket contractor. Contract of January 24, 1829. Was Administrator for Marine T. Wickham, deceased musket manufacturer 1829-1835.
BAKER, James
 Mill Creek, Pa., about 1825.
BAKER, John
 Lancaster, Pa., flintlock period.
BAKER, John
 Pennsylvania musket maker. Several references to John Baker making Provincial firearms for Pennsylvania in 1776. His farm and shop were on the south side of the Germantown Pike at the North Wales Road, which is at rear end of the State Hospital for the Insane at Norristown, Pa. Rev. Charles Collins in 1895 stated that "John Baker was an ingenious worker in iron, steel, and other metals. His father was a native of Germany; and a very early settler in the vicinity. During the Revolutionary War Mr. Baker rendered very efficient aid to the Whig cause, by his handicraft, in the work of repairing suitable fire-arms. Mr. Baker lived to a great old age; being nearly a centenarian; and died about 1820." A son Arnold died at the old homestead about 1858. The son kept Barley Sheaf tavern.
BAKER, John
 Providence Township, Pa., 1768-75 and after.
Baker, John-
Committee of Safety gunsmith of Providence Township, Penna., 1775. Active 1768-75, before and after.
BAKER, Melchior
 Also Melchor. Fayette County, Pa., before and after 1781-1804. After participating in Col. Lochry's ill-fated ex pedition of 1781, he came to Georges Township, Fayette Co., where he settled and established an arms factory in association with Albert Gallatin, who furnished most of the financial back ing. The plant at times employed up to a hundred hands, and supplied the state as well as furnished arms to the national government, making broadswords and long arms. After Gallatin joined Jefferson's Cabinet, he withdrew from the firm, disposing of his interest to Baker, who continued the operation of the plant with the assistance of his sons. The factory was in operation in 1804, as is evidenced by a Pennsylvania State payment of $1,333.33 for arms furnished. The firm closed when the government armories went into large scale production, and Baker moved to Clarksburg, Va. (now W. Va.)
BAKER, W. H.
 Marathon, Courtland Co., N. Y., and Batavia, N. Y., heavy percussion sniper's and target rifles with patent muzzles and telescope sights.
Baker, W. H.; Baker & Co.
Marathon, N. Y. Shotgun manufacturers, 1870-80. Produced a number of three-barrel guns.
BALD, Fred
 91 Pennsylvania St., Baltimore, Md., 1860.
BALDWIN, Elihu
 Branford, Conn. Musket maker to Committee of Safety. Made 17 good guns with bayonets. Recorded Nov. 18, 1776.
BALDWIN, Jacob
 Pennsylvania musket maker to Committee of Safety. Jacob Baldwin was one of the petitioners, representing Pennsylvania gun makers, complaining to Committee of Safety in November, 1776, against the high cost of materials and labor entering into arms making, and quoting advances in prices within one year, since 1775.
BALL & WILLIAMS
 Worcester, Mass., 1861-66. Makers of Ballard's patent carbines and military and sporting rifles, under Charles H. Ballard patent of Nov. 5, 1861, No. 33,631. During the Civil War the government purchased 1,509 Ballard carbines.
BALL, Elisha
 North Carolina before and after 1821; flintlock Kentucky rifles.
Ballard & Co.
Manufacturers of Charles Ballard's patent November 5, t86i breech-loaders. Located on Jackson St., Worcester, Mass. During the Civil War the government purchased T509 Ballard carbines at a cost of $35,140. Active until 1872 or later.
BALLARD & FAIRBANKS
 Worcester, Mass., 1870. Made Ballard cartridge derringers.
Ballard Arms Co.
Civil War manufacturers of the Ballard arms at Fall River, Mass. Active 1863-68.
BALLARD ARMS CO.
 Worcester, Mass. Civil War arms.
BALLARD, C. H. & CO.
 See Ballard & Fairbanks.
Ballweg, A.
Gunmaker, 129 West Washington St., Indianapolis, Ind., 1868-72.
BALLWEG, A.
 129 W. Washington St., Indianapolis, Ind., 1868-72.
BALSER, A. L. & CO.
 Cincinnati, Ohio, 1857-59.
BALSLEY, T.
 Connellsville, Fayette Co., Pa. Half and full stock percussion Kentucky rifles of good workmanship. Name on barrel.
Baltimore Arms Co.
Baltimore, • Md. Established about 1895. Among the first to manufacture hammcrlcss shotguns. Failed 1902.
BALTIMORE ARMS CO.
 Modern. Shotguns.
BAMES, S. or T
 Marking on sideplate of circa 1840 Kentucky rifle.
Bandle Arms Co.; Bundle, J. C.
Cincinnati, Ohio. Established 1865 and specialized in target rifles. Produced a number of John Kriders patent gallery guns. Quit about 1902.
BANDLE GUN CO.
 J. Bandle, Cincinnati, Ohio. .22 Cal. percussion "saloon" rifles.
Bannon, William
Gunmaker of Fredericksburg, Va., 1875.
BARBOUR, A. M.
 Superintendent Harpers Ferry Armory, 1860.
Barent, Covert
Gunsmith of New Amsterdam, 1646. lie is listed as a matter of record and* not as a maker.
BARENT, Covert
 Or Govert. New Amsterdam, N. Y., 1648.
Barger, Frederic N.
Son of Adam Barger, born February 27, 1813, in Rockbridge County, Virginia. Migrated to Ohio and established in Concord Township, Champaign County in 1836. On record as having made “145 new rifles and repairing a thousand and some during the first ten years of practice”. Continued as a repairman until 1881 or later, (pg. 789, Beer’s “History of Champaign County, Ohio." Chicago, 1881.)
BARKER, Cyrus
 Providence, R. I., percussion period.
Barker, F. A.
Fayettesville, North Carolina. Produced rifles and muskets for the Confederacy.
Barlow, J.
Gunmaker of Moscow, Indiana, 1836-40.
BARLOW, J.
 Moscow, Ind., 1840-1859, probably before and after. A few flint rifles. A heavy, curly maple, halfstocked percussion rifle with H. E. Leman back-action lock. Barrel marked in script "J. BARLOW March the 12, 1859."
BARNARD, Joseph
 Musket maker 1799-1801. See Amasa Allen.
Barnea, Thomas N.
Gunmaker of North Brookfield, Mass. Born in 1764 and known to have been active in 1791. Died in Bakersfield, Vermont.
BARNES, Thomas
 Washington,Born 1840 at Oakville, Ontario, Can ada; died Aug. 28, 1909 at Vassar, Mich. Learned gunsmithing about 1856 from father Jacob Barnes and an old English smith. Set up shop at Vassar, fall of 1865. Various partners: Ab. Har rington, Saul Green (as Barnes & Green); son George W. Barnes after about 1905. Made percussion over-under rifle-shotguns with side hammers, marked "T. W. BARNES" on lockplate (some un marked). Inlays of German silver or other white metal; patch boxes open downward. Also made some breechloaders.
BARNES, Thomas N.
North Brookfield, Mass. Born 1763, active to about 1800. Died at Bakersfield, Vt.
BARNES, W. H.
 Boston, Mass. Back-action lock, percussion rifle.
Barnhart! Nehemiah
Son of the elder William. Born 1831, died 1888. Believing that the west presented possibilities for the gunsmith he journeyed to Columbus, Nebraska, only to find another smith firmly established at that place. He returned to Ohio and opened a shop at Hallsville, Ross County, where he was active until his death.
BARNHART, Geo. A.
 New Rumley, Harrison Co., Ohio, 1841-1881. Descended from Hessian prisoners of war who settled in Bucks County, Pa., after Revolutionary War.
Barnhart, George
Rifiemaker. Brother to the elder William and father of William the younger. Born in Pennsylvania in 1798, died in Greene Township, Ross County, Ohio, February 17, 1844. The Barnharts were descendant from two Hessian soldiers brought to America by the British during the Revolution. Following the war they settled in Berks County, Penna., their children later migrating to Ohio. According to family tradition the Barnharts were of an inventive mind, some worked in wood, others in metal and one was a clocksmith. The two brothers, William the elder and George, learned their craft from an old gunsmith then practicing at Jackson, Ohio. The story goes that the two young men desired a rifle and lacked the necessary funds with which to purchase. They accordingly journeyed to Jackson to learn how to make the desired weapon. Upon their arrival they timidly watched the smith at his work through the open door. Noting their eager-eyed interest in his efforts he invited them lo enter and the resulting friendship culminated in his instruction in his craft. Later (he buys returned home bearing with them some knowledge of the craft and a keg of soft iron but lacking somewhat in skill. They then produced their first rifle which although serviceable lacked the beauty and effectiveness of their subsequent products. The brothers made their rifles entirely by hand, barrels and all, and turned out many beautiful specimens. A number of these weapons are preserved in the Ohio State Museum one of which was used for many years by Hewitt the Hermit, a legendary figure in early Ohio history. One of the Barnhart shops is still standing near Union Chapel Church, Ross County. Here one may still see the burnt imprints of the hot barrel blanks in the logs of which it was constructed.
BARNHART, George
 Greene Township, Ross Co., Ohio. Born in Pennsylvania, 1798, died in Ohio, Feb. 17, 1844. Brother of Wil liam Barnhart (elder).
BARNHART, Nehemiah
 Hallsville, Ross Co., Ohio. Born 1831, died 1888. Son of William Barnhart (elder).
BARNHART, Simon
 Pennsylvania; flintlock Kentucky rifles.
Barnhart, William
The elder of that name, brother to George and father of Nehemiah. Born in Pennsylvania, August 12, 1802, died in Ross County, Ohio, October 6, 1867. Worked in Greene Township and was a fine workman.
Barnhart, William
Son of George. Born in September, 1825, died February 3, 189T. Worked in Greene Township, Ross County, Ohio. The two younger cratsmen, George and Nehemiah, bought their barrels in blank from such barrel makers as E. Remington & Son and J. A. Reynolds.
BARNHART, William
 (The elder). Brother of George Barnhart. Greene Township, Ross Co., Ohio. Born Aug. 12, 1802, died Oct. 6, 1867.
BARNHART, William
 (The younger). Son of George Barnhart. Greene Township, Ross Co., Ohio. Born September, 1825, died February, 1891.
BARNHIZLE, Christopher
 Musket maker 1799-1801. In association with Nicholas White, Thomas Craft and Jacob Metzger, con tracted under Act of July 5, 1798, for 1,000 Charleville pattern (Model 1795) muskets at $13.40 per stand, of which 235 were delivered by June 10, 1801.
Barnum-Richardson
Lime Rock, Conn. Established 1864 and produced gun forgings and ordnance material until 1912 or later. (Pg. Ill Blue Book, Iron and Steel Association, 1912.)
BARR, Frederick
 Gunsmith, New York, N. Y. 1801-02.
BARR, R.
 New York, N. Y. Reported marking on a Birmingham proofed percussion shotgun. Importer?
BARRET
 "Deacon" Samuel Barret, musket maker of Concord, Mass., after 1775.
Barrett, J.
Confederate gunsmith at Wytheville, Virginia, who produced a few arms. Active 1857-63, before and after.
BARRETT, J. B.
 Wytheville, Va. Civil War musket contractor to the Confederacy. So called "Hall muzzle-loading rifle" may have been made here as well as rifles patterned after Model 1855, but with out patch box or primer.
Barrett, Lockhart
Gunmaker of Brattleboro, Vermont, 1858-68, before and after.
Barrett, Samuel “Deacon”
A Committee of Safety gunsmith of Concord, Mass. Born 1726, died March 10, 1800. “We hear from Concord that a fine laboratory for gun making is set up there by Deacon Barrett, where every branch of the business is carried on. As the laboratory has the advantage of a stream, the boring, grinding and polishing is performed by water/ ’ New England Chronicle, Cambridge, December 14, 1775.
BARRETT, Thomas
 "Deacon" Thomas Barrett and son Samuel, ("Deacon" Samuel Barret?) Revolutionary War operators of a gun factory at Concord, Mass., at the time of the battle of Con cord.
BARRINGTON, A. C.
 Lebanon, N. Y. Percussion under-hammer rifle.
BARROWS, E.
 Unlocated. Curly maple full-stock, octagonal barrel, .36 cal. flintlock Kentucky squirrel rifle.
BARSTOW, I. & C. C
 Musket makers of Exeter, N. H. Contracted on Oct. 21, 1808, for 2,500 Model 1808 muskets. Barstow musket lock plates are marked "J. & C. B. Exeter." In the early 19th Century letters J and I were interchanged rather freely in writ ing. Probabilities are that the contract should have read J. Barstow.
Barstow, I. & C. C.
Gunmakers of Exeter, New Hampshire. Secured a government contract in 1808 for muskets “for arming the militia.” A report dated October 7, 1812, states 875 arms had been delivered.
BARTLETT
 Lancaster, Pa. Early Kentucky flintlock rifles of excel lent workmanship.
Bartlett Bros.; Bartlett & Bro., A.
About t8oo a gunmaker settled at Chenango Point (now Binghamton), New York, coming from Lancaster, Penna. He appears to have been the father of the brothers who succeeded him about 1825 and continued until 1847.
BARTLETT, A.
 Ruxton Lane, Baltimore, Md., active in 1817.
Bartlett, A. & P.
Gunmakers of Massachusetts. Secured government contract for muskets “for arming the militia” in 1808. A report dated October 7, 1812, states 1500 arms had been delivered.
BARTLETT, A. & P.
 Massachusetts musket makers. Contracted Oct. 31, 1808, for 2,500 Model 1808 muskets. Of these 1,500 were delivered by Oct. 7, 1812.
BARTLETT, Isak
 Forged lock plates at Springfield Armory 1808.
BARTLETT, Joseph, and Robert S.
 Binghamton, N. Y., 1829-50. Sons of Capt. Isaac Bartlett, Connecticut blacksmith and wheel right, who in 1813 established in Owego, N. Y., and thence in 1829, settled at Chenango Point (now Binghamton). Joseph and Robert Bartlett opened a shop on Court Street where between 1829 and 1834 they made flintlock Kentucky rifles at first, then percussion arms. In 1834 the site of their shop being taken over by the State for a canal project, they put up a larger new build ing on Franklin (now Washington) Street, employing at times as many as 25 hands. From 1834, on change of name of the city to Binghamton, the Bartlett arms were marked with the new name, instead of Chenango Point. The plant discontinued about 1850, unable to compete with cheaper, machine made arms made on production basis.
BARTON, Samuel
 Thorntown, Ind., 1885.
Basier, A. L.
Gunmaker of Cincinnati, Ohio, 1857-59.
BASLER, A. L. & CO.
 Cincinnati, Ohio, 1857-59.
BASSET, F. E.
 Breech-loading, rim-fire target pistol.
BATCHELOR, William R.
 Gunmaker. Miller's Court (N.L.), Phila., Pa., 1819.
BATES, Cord
 Thornton, N. Y., percussion period.
BATES, R.
 North Carolina; making flintlock Kentucky rifles in 1820.
BATLEFELD, R.
 Unlocated. Flintlock Kentucky rifles.
BATON ROUGE ARSENAL.
 Confederate Arsenal at Baton Rouge, La. Serviceable property removed by the State of Louisiana in May 1861, including 4,000 muskets, sabers, pistols, battery wagons, forges, etc. The gun machinery for making arms was removed to Columbus, Ga., in 1862.
BATTLES, C. G.
 Wellington, Lorain Co., Ohio.
BATTLS, John
 Whittier, N. C. Percussion rifles.
BAUER & KLEPZIG
 212 Washington St., San Francisco, Calif., 1855. See also KLEPZIG & CO.
Bauer, George
Gunsmith of Lancaster, Penna., 1770-81. Worked on public arms but doubtful as to producing complete arms.
BAUER, George
 Lancaster, Pa., prior to 1783.
BAUER, J.
 Unlocated. Flintlock period.
BAUM, C
 Unlocated. "C. BAUM MAKER, POTTSVILLE," marking on barrel of superposed, swivel-breech percussion rifle, circa 1845.
BAUM, Samuel
 New Berlin, Pa., 1789-1840. Flintlock and percussion Kentucky rifles.
BAXTER, A. T.
 Baltimore, Md., about 1830-41.
Bay City Forge Co.
1820 Cranberry St., Erie, Penna. Light and heavy, ordnance, 1920 or before, to date.
Bay State Arms Co.
Uxbridge and Worcester, Mass. Produced the “Bay State” line of shotguns. Short lived, about 1873-74.
BAY STATE ARMS CO.
 Oxbridge, Mass., about 1870-75. Single-shot target rifles and pistols.
 Bayer, John
New York, N. Y. Produced breech-loading lever action airguns.
BE VIE R, James
 Plymouth, Ohio, 1867-96.
BEACH, C. H.
 Unlocated. Three barrel pepper-box type revolving rifle, each barrel with own sights. Same as Claudius H. Beach?
BEACH, Claudius H.
 Marshall, Michigan. Born at Bloomfield, On tario Co., N. Y., and later apprenticed to a gunsmith. Moved West to Marshall, Mich. Married Mary McKay October 10, 1830. Three children. Hunting and target rifles usually using Reming ton barrels and Geo. Golcher locks. Died Aug. 26, 1888.
BEACH, J. J.
 Celina, Ohio, 1835-1860.
BEACH, T.
 Perry Co., Pa., 1815, before and after.
Beadle
Riflemaker of Indian Trail, Ohio, 1840-90. (F. I. A. H. Sawyer.)
BEADLE
 Indian Trail, Maumee Valley, Ohio, 1840-90.
BEALE
 Unidentified. 1858.
BEAN, Baxter
 Jonesboro, Tenn., 1812. Also Cherokee Creek and Nashville. Rifle made in 1834. Son of Russell Bean who was born in 1769 on Watauga River, Tenn., of William Bean. Russell Bean was the father of Baxter, Charles, Joseph (of Rock Creek, Tenn.) and Robert (Washington Co., about 1835). He had brothers Edmund, Jesse (company commander at Battle of Kings Mountain), John, Robert (served in War of Revolution) and William, Jr., all sons of Wm. Bean of Watauga River, Tenn.
BEAN, Charles
 Son of Russell Bean, Jonesboro, Tenn. Rifle made in 1831. Father of Charles Bean, Jr.
BEAN, Charles, Jr.
 Percussion rifles. Son of Charles Bean. Died near Erwin, Tenn., about 1920.
BEAN, James
 East Tennessee, flintlock period.
BEAN, Russell
 Jonesboro, Tenn. Born 1869. Rifle maker. His identifi cation marks were stars at muzzle and on rear sight.
BEARDSLEY MFG. CO.
 Brooklyn, N. Y., about 1868. Rifled muskets.
BEAUVAIS, R.
 St. Louis, Mo., gunsmith. Born in 1817. Listed in the city directory from 1858 to 1875. Reported to have made a few revolvers of Colt type for the Confederacy. When Missouri "went Union," the Beauvais family are alleged to have supplied the Confederate members of "Order of American Knights" or "Knights of the Golden Circle," with arms.
BEBOUT, William
 Monroe Township, Belmont Co., Ohio, 1858-1876.
BECHTLER, Christopher
 Rutherford, N. C, 1829-47 and later.
Bechtler, Christopher and A.
Christopher Bechtler, a native of Germany, migrated to America and settled in Rutherford, North Carolina, about 1829. With his son A. he engaged in gunsmithing, a report of a visit to his shop which was published in 1847 states, “as gunsmiths they are preeminent for their ingenuity”. One of their best known pieces is a two shot percussion pistol with two hammers and triggers. The. two barrels form a 1350 V shape. One barrel is grasped as a grip while the other is fired.
BECK, A. S.
 Unidentified. Kentucky flintlock rifle.
BECK, C
 Lancaster Co., Penna. 1780-1820. Flintlock Kentucky rifles.
Beck, Christian
Gunmaker of Indianapolis, Indiana, 1867-74.
BECK, Christian
 Indianapolis, Ind., 1871-74.
BECK, D.
 Unidentified, Flintlock and percussion Kentucky rifles.
Beck, Gideon
Gunsmith of Lancaster, Penna., 1780-88.
BECK, Gideon
 Pennsylvania, about 1780-90.
BECK, H.
 Gunsmith, 27 St. Phillip, New Orleans, La., 1853.
Beck, Isaac
Gunsmith of Mifflinbcrg, Penna., 1835. Produced rifles.
BECK, Isaac
 Mifflinburg, Union Co., Pa., about 1835. Fine flintlock arms.
BECK, J. P.
 Union County, Pa., flintlock period.
BECK, J. W.
 Unidentified. Flintlock Kentucky rifle.
Beck, John
Gunsmith to the Committee of Safety of Lancaster County, Penna. Active 1772-77. Worked on public arms.
BECK, John
 Lancaster County, Pa. Active 1772-77, before and later.
Beck, John Philip
Gunsmith of Dauphin County, Penna. Active 1785-89. Worked on Public arms.
BECK, John Philip
 Dauphin County, Pa., before and after 1788-89.
BECK, S. & SONS
 Indianapolis, Ind. Makers and distributors of rifles and shotguns. Many of their products were made from standard rough parts furnished to sub-contractor gunsmiths in the vicinity, for boring, stocking and finishing.
Beck, Samuel
Gunsmith of Indianapolis, Indiana, 1867-74. Produced shotguns, doubtful as to rifles.
BECK, Samuel
 Indianapolis, Ind., 1870-71.
BECK, Wm. & Son
 Portland, Ore. Dealers and gunsmiths, percus sion period.
BECKER, I. or J.
 Lebanon, Pa., before 1800. Kentucky rifle.
Beckley, Elias
Gunmaker of Beckley Quarter near Berlin, Connecticut. Active 1807 or before, died 1816.
BECKLEY, Elias
 Connecticut, flintlock period. Died in 1816. His son, Elias, Jr., carried on the business at Beckley Quarter, near Berlin, until his death in 1828.
Beckley, Elias Jr.
Son and successor to the above. Active 1815 or before until his death in 1828.
BEDDIE, George
 Sugar Creek Township, Tuscarawas Co., 1815-1871. "Rifles and other firearms." Ohio,
BEEBE
 Albany, N. Y., 1846-49.
Beebe, Richard
Gun and riflemaker of Springfield, Ohio, 1853-70. Shop at 160 Main Street.
BEEBE, Richard
 Springfield, Ohio, 1861-64.
BEEMAN
 Massachusetts. Gunsmith to Committee of Safety, 1775-76.
BEEMAN, John
 Lancaster, Fairfield Co., Ohio, 1820.
BEEMAN, Martin
 Lancaster, Fairfield Co., Ohio, 1831.
BEERSTECHER, F.
 Philadelphia, Pa. Percussion Kentucky rifles. Also patentee of a two-shot, single barrel rifle, Sept. 25, 1855, Patent No. 13,592.
BEERSTECHER, G. F.
 Lewisburg, Pa. Percussion side-by-side dou ble rifle.
BEERSTECHERS, E.
 Lewisburg, Pa. Same as Beerstecher, F.?
BEISEL, John and Simon
 Philadelphia, Pa. Listed as gunsmiths on Lilley Alley in 1829.
Beisheim, Harry
T45 North Water St., Rochester, N. Y. Associated with him were H. and Jacob Bcishcim. Produced air-guns and active 1873-75.
BEKEART
 San Francisco, Cal., percussion rifles.
BELKNAP, Amaso
 Cherry Valley, N. Y., rifle maker. Born in Elling ton, Conn., Nov. 29, 1786. Moved to Cherry Valley, year un known. The last house he lived in still stands but the brick gunshop was torn down about 1900. Fine muzzle loading, full stock, pill-lock and percussion hunting and target rifles on the German styles, with cheek-piece and inlays. Died Sept. 21, 1878 and is buried in Cherry Valley cemetery.
BELL, Conder
 Unlocated. Kentucky rifles.
BELL, Elias
 Pennsylvania; making flintlock Kentucky rifles in 1818.
BELL, H. P.
 Cambridge, Ohio.
BELL, John
 Boston, Mass., 1745-54.
BELLES, P.
 Unlocated; possibly same as Bellis of Lancaster, Pa. Flintlock and percussion Kentucky rifles.
BELLIS
 Lancaster, Pa. Early flintlock period.
BELLOWS, Josiah
 Walpole, N. H. Musket maker, 1799, 1801. Associated with Gurdon Huntington, John Livinston and David Stone in a contract under Act of July 5, 1798, for 500 Charleville pat tern (Model 1795), muskets at $13.40 per stand. Of these 235 were delivered by June 10, 1801.
BELTON, Joseph
 Philadelphia, Pa., 1777. By direction of Congress of May 3, 1777, authorized to superintend the making or altering of one hundred muskets on a plan exhibited by him. These guns were to fire eight rounds "with once loading."
Bemis, Edmund
Gunmaker.' Born 1720. Commissioned a Lieutenant and present at the reduction of Louisburg in 1745, he returned to Boston and his practice the same year. Active through the Revolution and until about 1785. Died 1810.
BEMIS, Edmund
 Boston, Mass. Born 1720. Active 1746-85. Died 1810.
BENDER, J.
 Pennsylvania, period of 1790. Fine Kentucky flintlock rifle. Late Kentucky rifles so marked are possibly by another maker.
BENFER, Amos
 Troxelville, Pa. Over-under, full stock, percussion Kentucky type rifle marked on barrel, "AMOS BENFER TROX ELVILLE, PA. MARCH 1883." Related to Benfer, Amos above?
Benfer, Amos and Arnig
Riflemakers of the flintlock period, Bea- verstown, Snyder County, Penna.
BENFER, Amos and Arnig
 Beaverstown, Snyder Co., Pa. Flintlock period.
BENNETT
 With Packson settled on Kent Island, Md., in 1631. Mary land's first gun makers. Established three years before founding of the Province by Calvert.
Bennett, Daniel K.
Riflemaker of Montpelier, Vermont, 1856-68, before and after.
Bennett, L.
46 Dorrance St., Providence, R. I. Produced a number of single-shot pistols and perhaps shoulder arms, 1859-68, before and after.
BENNETT, T.
 Unlocated. Single-shot, percussion underhammer pistol of "hand forged" workmanship.
BENNETT, William N.
 Elgin, Iowa, 1854-84. Born February 14, 1834, at Middlebury, Addison Co., Vt. Came to California in his youth via Cape Horn, thence in the 1850's, after a three months over land journey, to Iowa, where he located 3 miles from Elgin and worked for thirty-five years. Made muzzle loading, percussion, hunting and target rifles with gain twist rifling of noted accuracy. Bennett rifle, .45 caliber, 31 inch barrel known dated March 1, 1884. William Bennett died in 1914 in Stowe, Vermont.
BENSON, EZRA D.
 Terra Alta (formerly Cranberry Summit), W. Va., and later Morgantown, W. Va., about 1870 and later. Ornate German silver inlaid, halfstock percussion rifles.
BENSON, M. M.
 Morgantown, W. Va., about 1870 and later. Brother of E. D. Benson above. Made same type of ornate, German silver mounted, half and fullstock percussion rifles.
BENSON, Wm.
 Rices Landing, Greene Co., Pa.
Berg, A.
Riflemaker of Akron, Ohio, 1857-66, before and after.
BERG, Henry
 Davenport, Iowa, 1860-70. Born in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, about 1827; came to U. S. in 1850's after having served apprenticeship as gunsmith. Worked first in St. Louis, Mo., for two or three years, then came to Davenport where he first estab lished his shop in a one-story building on the northeast corner of Third and Main. Later moved to northeast corner of Third and Harrison, where he built a three-story, brick building which still stands. Operated under own name for many years until joined by his sons, Frank and Emil (famous off-hand, schuetzen rifle shot), when the firm became H. Berg & Sons. Henry Berg made rifles, shotguns and pistols. Was active in the Davenport Schuetzen Verein and his rifles were mostly of the schuetzen type. Berg ceased making arms about the time of the Civil War, to engage in the sale of commercial arms and supplies. In later years the firm was at 221 Harrison St. The business was sold in 1926, to be operated as a sporting goods store.
BERGER, Casper
 Detroit gunsmith. Active in Detroit up to 1866. Several percussion rifles marked with his name are in existence,
BERGER, W.
 Aurora, Ind. Percussion rifle,
Berlin, Abraham
Rifle and musket maker of Easton, Penna. Active 1773 and before. Entered the service as Ensign in Captain Henry Alshouse’s 5th (Easton) Company, Northampton County Militia. In 1782 he is mentioned as lieutenant. Active until 1786 or later.
BERLIN, Abraham
 Easton, Pa., before and after 1786.
Berlin, Isaac
Riflemaker and sword cutler of Easton, Penna. Born 1755. Enrolled in Captain Henry Alshouse’s 5th Company, Northampton County Militia in 1776. Served as private, sergeant and adjutant, being discharged November 10, 1781. The swords produced by Berlin were pronounced fine by contemporary military officers. Active until 1817. Died in Crawford County, June 16, 1831, age 76 years.
BERLIN, Isaac
 Easton, Pa., before and after 1786. Born 1755, died 1831.
BERLIN, Louis
 10 Court St., Buffalo, N. Y., 1854.
Bernan
Committee of Safety Musket-maker of Massachusetts, 1775-76.
BERNARD, Joseph
 Walpole, N. H. Musket maker, 1799-1801. As sociated with Amasa Allen and Samuel Grant in a contract for 1,500 Charleville pattern, (Model 1795) muskets at $13.40 per stand, of which 1,396 were delivered by June 10, 1801.
BERRY, A. P.
 Unlocated, flintlock period.
BERRY, B.
 Painted Post, N. Y., about 1820. Late flintlock Kentucky rifles; an over-under double rifle.
BERRY, R. B.
 Unlocated, flintlock period.
BERRY, S.
 Pennsylvania, Flintlock Kentucky rifle.
Berry, W.
Riflemaker of Poughkeepsie, N. Y., 1834, thence to Albany until 1840 or later.
BERRY, W.
 Poughkeepsie, N. Y., before and after 1840. Later at Albany, N. Y. Percussion revolvers under Cochran's patent.
BERSTRO, I. W.
 Buffalo, N. Y. A German silver mounted, walnut halfstock percussion rifle with A. W. Spies lock. Probably related to J. H. Berstro.
Berstro, J. H.
Riflemaker of Buffalo, N. Y., 1835.
BERSTRO, J. H.
 Buffalo, N. Y., 1835. Silver inlaid, brass mounted flintlock Kentucky rifle.
Berstrow, H.
Riflemaker of Buffalo, N. Y., 1835. Perhaps same as the above.
Bertonnet
Pistol & revolver maker of Buenos Aires, 1867-70.
BERY, P.
 Unlocated. Flintlock Kentucky rifles with carving in relief.
BEST
 Lancaster, Pa., flintlock period.
BEST, M.
 Pennsylvania, late flintlock period.
Bethlehem Steel Company
South Bethlehem, Penna. Established i860. Began the production of ordnance in 1887 and today one of the most important sources of supply of ordnance in all calibers, 1-pounders to 18-inch naval and coast defense, (pg. 78, “Gun Making in the United States’', R. Birmic, Jr., Washington, 1887. pg. 163, Swank.)
BETTLEY
 Buffalo, N. Y., 1860. Sporting rifles and shotguns.
BEUTTER BROS.
 New Haven, Conn. Later Meriden, Conn., be fore and after 1850. Match rifles.
BEVANS, A. L.
 Flushing, N. Y. Halfstock, octagon barrel percussion rifle.
BEYER, N.
 (Or Beyers). Lebanon, Pa., about 1780-1808. Fine heavy flintlock Kentucky rifles, scroll carved, without patchbox or with long-necked bird forming tip of patchbox.
BEYERS, N.
 Pennsylvania, about 1808. (See Beyer, N. same?)
BICKEL, Louis
 Akron, Ohio, 1878-83.
BICKNELL, Thomas
 Musket maker, active 1799-1801. Contracted under Act of July 5, 1798, for 2,000 Charleville pattern, (Model 1795) muskets at $13.40 per stand, 1,300 of which were delivered by June 10, 1801. The name is spelled BRICKNESS in the list of contractors, and Bicknell in the list of payments made.
BICKNESS, Thomas
 See Bicknell, above.
BIDDLE, Levi
 Shanesville, Tuscarawas Co., Ohio, 1830. Half-stock, silver inlaid, percussion match rifle.
BIDDLE, R. & W. C
 Philadelphia, Pa., about 1840. Flintlock Ken tucky rifles. Marking known on barrels and on locks.
BIDDLE, T. & W. C.
 Philadelphia, Pa., percussion period.
BIDDLE, W. C. & CO.
 Marking on a lock of a percussion Plains rifle.
BIDWELL, Oliver
 Hartford, later Middletown, Conn. Born Dec. 13, 1732, son of David and Mehetabell Bidwell. Active 1756-1810. Contracted Oct. 25, 1808, for 4,000 Model 1808 muskets. Of these 750 were delivered by Oct. 7, 1812. Had been a gunsmith.
Bidwetl, Oliver
Hartford, Conn. Received government contract 1808 for muskets “for arming the Militia”. A report dated October 7, 1812, indicates that 750 arms had been delivered.
BIEG, S.
 Pennsylvania, 18th century. Splendid rotating double flintlock rifle.
BIELRY & CO.
 Unlocated. Late flintlock period pistol maker.
BIGELOW, B.
 Marysville, Cal. Revolving cylinder pill-lock rifles.
Bigelow, Benj.
Produced revolving pill-lock rifles at Marysville, Calif.
BIGOT, Leon
 150 Sacramento St., San Francisco, Calif., 1859-61.
BILHARZ, HULL & CO.
 Pittsylvania Court House, Va. Confederate shoulder arms. Advertised for 25-30 gunsmiths, May 16, 1862.
Billinghurst, William
Famous riflemaker of Rochester, N. Y. Born Monroe County, N. Y., 1807, established prior to 1843 at 9 Stillson Street, died t88o. Produced many fine rifles including a number of heavy “40 rod” guns with false muzzle which are now of considerable value.
BILLINGHURST, William
 9 Stillson St., Rochester, N. Y. Born in Monroe, Co., N. Y., in 1807, died in Rochester March 4, 1880. Inter nationally famous maker and match shooter. Established in Rochester about 1838; 43 Main St. in 1841. Advertised in 1853: ". . . rifles, target rifles, repeating rifles, or seven-shooters, double barreled rifles, one-above-the-other, rifle and shot, double barreled guns, telescopic sights for rifles made to order. Repairing of all kinds . . ."
Billings & Spencer
Hartford, Conn. Charles Ethan Billings and Christopher M. Spencer. Billings was born at Wetherficld, Vt., December 6, 1835. In early manhood he served six years with Colt as toolmaker. In 1862 he joined E. Remington & Soil in the same capacity. He returned to Hartford in 1865 and in 1868 became president of the Roper Arms Company, Amherst. The company was disbanded and reorganized at Hartford as the Billings and Spencer Company, 1869. Spencer withdrew from active participation in the affairs of the company in 1872 but retained his stock. Produced all manner of firearms among which were the Ballard, Bullard, Marlin, Roper and Prussian needle-guns. Active to date producing gun forgings. (National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, White, N. Y., 1929, many references.)
BILLINGS & SPENCER
 Hartford, Conn., 1869-76. Firm organized by Charles E. Billings, ex-employee of Colt's and Remington's. Made Roper sporting arms.
BILLUPS & HASSELL
 Mound Prairie (or Plenitude), Anderson Co., Tex. Consisting of John Billups and D. D. Hassell. Made 650 Texas rifles for the Confederacy between December, 1862, and March, 1864.
BINGHAM, Henry
 Pennsylvania, Committee of Safety Flintlock.
BIRCH
 Maker of flint and percussion rifle locks. "BIRCH" stamped on a flint lock (with gooseneck hammer and frizzen-spring roller bearing), of a John Derr Kentucky pistol. Also marking on lock of a percussion Kentucky rifle.
BIRCHER, C.
 St. Louis, Mo. Schuetzen type, walnut stocked percussion rifle, iron furniture, target sights.
Bird, A. N.
Riflemaker of Kenton, Hardin County, Ohio. Active from before 1853 to 1865 when his name last appears in the directories. Fine workman.
BIRD, A. N.
 Kenton, Hardin Co., Ohio, 1853-65.
Bird, C
I .ocksmith of Philadelphia, Penna, circa 1790-1816. Some locks stamped “Bird & Co.”
BIRD, C. & CO.
 Philadelphia, Pa., about 1812-1820; lockmakers. Engraved flintlocks on Kentucky rifles and pistols.
Bird, John
Gunsmith of Oskaloosa, Iowa. Born 1832 and active from 1858 to 1898. Died T918.
BIRD, John W.
 Oscaloosa, Iowa. Active about 1860-1900. Born in 1832; died October 13, 1917, in Des Moines; interred in Oscaloosa.
Bird, Mark
Cannon founder of Beris County. Penna., 1776-79.
BIRD, Mark
 Birdsboro, Pa., before and after 1775-88. Son of William Bird and established the town. Cast cannon during Revolution and agreed on May 28, 1776, to make 100 muskets for Pennsyl vania.
BIRD, W.
 Overton, Pa. Maker of an over-under, percussion rifle in 1858 or 1859. Also marking on the lock of a percussion Kentucky rifle.
Bisbee, D. H.
Gunmaker of Norway, Maine, 1835-60.
BISBEE, D. H.
 Norway, Maine, 1835-60. Silver mounted Kentucky rifle of fine workmanship.
BISBEE, J.
 Kalamazoo, Mich., 3-barrel, swivel-breech, percussion rifle.
BISBING
 Pennsylvania, percussion period.
BISBING, A. S.
 Well made, fancy, percussion, swivel breech, over under rifle of Kentucky style and lines, marked on barrel "A. S. BISBING (MAKER)." The lock plate engraved "L. M."; bridle plate marked "L. HETTINGER," possibly the owner.
BISCAISE, Benjamin
 Charleston, S. C, 1867.
BISHOP, D. D.
 Unidentified. Maker of over-under, combination per cussion rifle.
Bishop, Henry H.
Riflemaker of Boston, Mass. At 8 Change Ave., 1847 to 1856 thence to 20 Fan. Hall Sq., 1857.
BISHOP, Henry H.
 Boston, Mass., about 1847.
BISHOP, J.
 Eastern Pennsylvania, gun-lock maker after 1775.
BISHOP, W.
 Springfield, Illinois. Percussion rifle.
Bishop, William
Riflemaker of Boston, Mass., 1818 to about 1850.
BISHOP, William
 Boston, Mass., 1818-60.
BITTERLICH, Frank J.
 No. 16, Deaderick St., Nashville, Tenn., 1861. "Gun Manufacturer." Percussion derringers. Reputed to have made and repaired rifles at the beginning of the Civil War.
Bitterlich, Franz J.
Pistol and gunmaker of Nashville, Tenn., 1867- 75, before and after.
BITTINGER, Peter
 Orange Township, Ashland Co., Ohio, 1825.
BITTLE, W. C
 Unlocated. Percussion Kentucky rifle.
BIXLER & IDDINGS
 Lafayette, Ind., in 1874. Percussion lock on J. N. Brown, Dayton, O., rifle.

BLACK
 Springfield, Ohio. Percussion rifle.
BLACK & OWEN
 Detroit, Mich. Cal. .32 chased frame pocket revolver.
BLACKMAN, Anson
 Osceola and Elkland, Pa., before and after 1850.
BLACKMAN, Elijah
 In January, 1776, requested money to manu facture arms for the Colony of Connecticut. Made musket locks for Titus Hosmer of the Arms Committee of the Committee of Safety at Middletown.
BLACKWOOD,
Marmaduke, Philadelphia, Pa. Musket lock-maker to Committee of Safety, 1775-76. Contracted for 200 musket locks Dec. 5, 1775.
Blackwood, Marmaduke
Committee of Safety locksmith, Phiia., Pa. Secured contract December 5, 1775, for 200 gunlocks according to pattern at 22s.6p. each, deliveries within three months. (No. 495, American Archives, 4th Series, Vol. VI, 1776.)
Blaetterlein, John
Pistol maker, 553 Court St., Brooklyn, N. Y., from before 1868 to 1875.
BLAINE, William
 Ligonier Township, Westmoreland Co., Pa., 1838.
BLAIR AND MORRILL
 Amherst, Mass., Cutlass pistol. See Morrill, Mosman & Blair.
BLAIR, Andy
 Gunsmith. Belmont Co., Ohio, 1802. Sent to Stockade and Fort in Richland Co., by the U. S. Government, 1812-17.
Blaisdel, Jonathan
Committee of Safety musket maker at Anies- bury, Mass. Appointed Armourer to the Colony of Massachusetts Bay, May 15, 1775.
BLAISDEL, Jonathan
 Amesbury, Mass., 1775. Gunsmith to Com mittee of Safety.
BLAKE
 Of the firm French, Blake and Kinsley, musket makers, contractors of Oct. 20, 1808, for 4,000 stand of arms. There were 2,175 known to have been delivered by Oct. 7, 1812.
BLAKE, John Henry
 Maker of a bolt action, 7-shot, revolving magazine sporting rifle. Similar military type tested by an Ordnance Board of Governor's Island, N. Y., in July 1891.
BLAKE, P. & E. W.
 New Haven, Conn., musket makers of Model 1821 muskets. Believed to have been the nephews of Eli Whitney. Sr., and to have been the trustees of the Whitney Armory from 1823 until Eli Whitney (Jr.) coming of age in 1842.
Blake, R, & E. W. or P. & E. W.
Contract musket makers to" the government at New Haven, Conn., 1826-27, before and after.
Blanchard, Thomas
Born Sutton, Mass., June 24, 1788. Worked at Middlebury where he invented a cam-movement for the lathe which made possible the turning out of gun barrels of irregular shape. Followed with a like invention for turning gunstocks. Fight or ten of these machines were purchased by the British government for $40,000. Entered Springfield Armory to take charge of arms stocking and soon thereafter, invented a machine for mortising into the stock the various metal parts, i. e., barrel, lockplate, butt- plate, etc. Died at Boston, Mass., April 16, 1864.
BLANCHARD, Thomas
 Inventor of machinery for the mechanical completion of gun stocks and irregular turnings used at Spring field Armory in the early 19th Century. Born at Sutton, Mass., June 24, 1788, died in Boston, April 16, 1864.
BLANKENSHIP, W. S.
 Hot Springs, N. C, 19th-20th century. Fine handmade percussion rifles; a noted match shooter.
BLASIRUS, Peter
 Unlocated. Marking on Kentucky flintlock rifle.
BLEWITT & JOHNSON
 507 Commercial St., San Francisco, Calif., 1864-65.
BLICKENSDOERFER & SCHILLING
 St. Louis, Mo., makers of rifles, particularly of schuetzen type, with false muzzles and set triggers, with fine workmanship as to rifling, stocking, and hand made actions. John Blickensdoerfer is listed at 12 South Third Street in the 1868 St. Louis Directory. The 1873 Directory lists Blickensdoerfer & Schilling at the above address. The firm is listed as J. Schilling only in 1875.
BLISS & GOODYEAR
 16 Whitney Ave., New Haven, Conn., 1859. Made F. D. Bliss percussion revolvers.
BLISS, Frank D.
 16 Whitney Ave., New Haven, Conn., about 1856 63. Cartridge revolvers.
BLOODGOOD
 North Carolina, flintlock period.
BLOODWORTH, Timothy
 North Carolina musket maker, 1776-78. Authorized by the State of North Carolina on June 14, 1776, to be paid 5 pounds for each musket with bayonet to be delivered within the next four months, Bloodworth and his workmen to be exempt from military service during that period.
BLOOM, Jacob
 Pennsylvania, after about 1780. Flintlock and per cussion rifles; one with turkey head patchbox, brass lockplate, signed on barrel and lock.
BLUE GRASS
 Marking on an ordinary percussion bar lock of a home made half stock rifle, crudely marked "JOAB HELTON MAKE."
BLUNT & SYMS
 44 Chatham St., New York City, 1837-65. Per cussion pistols, pepperboxes rifles. (Orison Blunt).
Blunt, Orison; Blunt & Syms
Pistol makers of New York City, IS37-65-
BLUNT, Orizon
 118 Ninth St, New York, N. Y. Offered Sept. 10, 1861 to contract for 20,000 Enfield rifles "to be manufactured in this country." March 31, 1862 reported 200 ready for delivery and on May 13, 1862, had 500 muskets ready.
BLYMYER
 See Clark & Blymyer.
BLYMYRE, George
 12 miles north of York, Pa, in 1776. Flintlock Kentucky rifles.
BOALER, Joseph
 Newark, N. J. Percussion duelling type pistols.
Boardlear, Samuel
Gunsmith of Boston, 1796.
BOARDLEAR, Samuel
 Boston, Mass, 1796.
Bobb, Anthony
Riflemaker of Reading, Berks County, Penna., 1776-81.
BOBB, Anthony
 Reading, Berks Co, Pa, 1778-81.
BODENHEIMER, William
 Came to Lancaster, Ohio, as wheelright in 1817. One flintlock Kentucky rifle known, period 1810, as well as percussion rifles made before and after 1837. Listed as gun smith and gun manufacturer in 1859.
Bodenhimer, W.
Riflemaker of Lancaster, Ohio. Active 1852-54. Plain rifles of reputed accuracy.
BOENZLI, Andreas
 Lancaster, Pa. Swiss by birth; made beautiful Kentucky flintlock rifles showing Swiss influence.
BOGART BROS.
 112 Washington St, 1858-61.
BOLEN, J. G. B.
 New York, N. Y, 1857. Percussion pepperbox. Probably made by Allen.
Bolkenius, Albert
Riflemaker of Milwaukee, Wise. Active 1859-75.
BOLRENIUS, Albert-
Milwaukee, Wis. Born October 28, 1820, in Rhine, Prussia, where he learned the gunsmith trade. Came to U. S. in 1847, and to Milwaukee in 1848, where he was active as rifle, gun and pistol maker for over 30 years. Located on Oneida Street from 1848 until after the Civil War, then at 501 East Water until his death in 1890. Noted for fine percussion target rifles, schuetzen type.
BOLSER, Joseph
 Philadelphia, Pa., in 1799; flintlock Kentucky rifles.
BOLTON
 Barrel marking of a flintlock Kentucky rifle of about 1770-1790.
BOLTON, Enoch
 Charleston, S. C, 1665.
Bolton, Robert
Armourer to Georgia Colony, t771-73, inclusive, at £10 per annum.
BOLTON, Roberta
Georgia, 1770-73. Armorer to the Colony.
BOMFORD, Geo.
 Colonel Ordnance Dept. U. S. Army. Connected with procurement and technical improvement 1818-1841.
BOND, Richard
 Cecil County, Md. Contractor to Maryland Council of Safety for 1,000 gun barrels, on April 17, 1777.
BONEBRAKE, Tobias Miller
 Kingman, 111., before 1885. Percussion rifles.
BONNET, A.
 Clarion, Pa., 1875. Maker of full stock plains rifle marked "A. BONNET CLARION PA. 1875" and numbered. Barrel by James Bown, Pittsburgh (1862-1871), lock by J. H. Johnston, Pittsburgh, (1866-1916).
BONTEMPS
 Camden, N. J. Percussion rifles.
Boone, “Squire”
Brother of Daniel. Gunsmith and cutler producing belt knives. Harrodsburg, Ky.
Boone, E.
Gunsmith of Oley Valley, Penna., 1818.
BOONE, E.
 Oley Valley, Pa., before and after 1818. Cousin to Daniel Boone. Long, plain but graceful flintlock Kentucky rifles, scroll carved but without patchbox; one dated 1817.
Boone, Samuel
Gunsmith of Berks County, Penna. Came from North Carolina to learn gunsmithing in 1768. Nephew of Daniel.
BOONE, Samuel
 Berks County, Pa., after 1768. Nephew to Danie Boone.
BOONE, Samuel
 Frederickstown, Md. Musket lock-maker of Revolutionary War period.
BOONE, Squire
 Rowan County, N. C. Brother to Daniel Boone, before 1800.
BOONE, Thomas
 Oley Valley, Pa.; making flintlock Kentucky rifles in 1797. First cousin to Daniel Boone.
Booth
Famous riflemaker of Ottawa, Canada, 1862-68, before and after.
BOOTH, R. W.
 Cincinnati, Ohio. Maker of percussion rifle locks. Also made flintlock Kentucky rifle.
BOOTH, William
 Philadelphia, Pa., 85 S. Front St., in 1798, and on South Second St. from 1799 to 1816. Made pistols of martial type and manufactured and rented duelling pistols.
BOOTH, William
 Musket maker of Narberth, Pa., flintlock period. May have been the Wm. Booth who later married into the Nippes family, musket contractors.
Boothby, Edward K.
Gunmakcr of Portland, Maine, 44 Federal St. Active through the Civil War and until 1868.
BORDER, Daniel and Enos
 Bedford Borough and Township, Bedford Co., Pa., about 1843.
BORDER, Gebald
 Bedford, Pa., 1769.
BORDER, John
 Bedford Co., Pa. Son of William, brother of Daniel. Made mostly percussions.
BORDER, Samuel
 1825-1865, flint and percussion periods. Bedford Co., about 1841, later Somerset Co.
BORDER, William
 Bedford, Pa. Son of Gebald, father of Daniel and John. Made rifles before 1800.
BORDER, Wm.
 New Paris, Bedford, Co., Pa. Maker of full stock percussion squirrel rifles. Lock marked "W. B."
BORTREE, William
 Gunsmith. Back of 433 N. Third, Phila., Pa., 1819.
BOSTON ARMS COMPANY
 Boston, Mass. Civil War.
BOSWORTH
 Also Bossworth, Lancaster County, Pa., 1800-1805.
BOSWORTH, B. M.
 Unidentified. Cased pair of all metal percussion "bootleg" pistols. Cap boxes on left side of grips.
BOUCHETTE, John
Gunsmith. Cobb's Court, Phila., Pa., 1819.
BOUDEREAUX, P.
 N. Y. Maker of a massive, schuetzen type, octagon barrel, percussion target rifle with false muzzle and en graved lock and breech.
BOULON, W. S.
 Kentucky, 1800-40.
Bourne, William
At Savannah, Georgia, he produced revolvers in imitation of the Colt and Remington for the Confederacy. Marked "W. B. C. S. A.”
BOURNE, William
 Savannah, Ga., Confederate imitation Colt Remington revolvers, marked "W.B. C.S.A."
BOURON, Louis L.
 New Orleans, La., 1861-1943. Son of P. Bouron. Learned the gunsmith trade in his father's shop and after father's death continued the firm's business at 534 Chartres as P. Bouron Sons.
Bouron, P.
Rifle and pistol maker of New Orleans, T,a., 1866-75.
BOURON, P.
 New Orleans, La., arms maker. Born at Nantes, France in 1835. Was apprenticed to the gunsmith trade under Armand Soubie in 1847, at the age of 12. Located at 259 Bayou Road in 1853. Died in 1905.
BOURON, Philipe George
 New Orleans, La., 1859-1929. Son of P. Bouron. Learned the gunsmith trade at Evaeux, France, from 1878 to 1881, when he returned to New Orleans to work in his father's shop.
BOWMAN, William
 Loudonville, Ohio. Percussion rifles. Active 1865-1892. Worked with P. A. Reinhard of Loudonville, Ohio.
BOWN & TETLEY
 Enterprise Gun Works, Pittsburgh, Pa., estab lished 1848. James Bown became sole proprietor in 1862. Makers of a half stock, German silver mounted, percussion rifle of fine workmanship, with barrel and lock marked "BOWN & TETLEY PITTSBURGH" and barrel marked "KILL" over a buck and "ENTERPRISE GUN WORKS."
BOWN, A.
 Barrel marking of a muzzle-loading, percussion rifle.
BOWN, James
 Born in England, 1823; emigrated when ten years old and settled at Pittsburgh, Pa., in 1843. With Tetley, established the Enterprise Gun Works, 136-138 Wood Street, Pittsburgh, Pa. Father of Wm. H. Bown. Member of firms Bown & Tetley (1848 1862), and James Bown & Son (1871 to 1879 and possibly later).
BOWN, James & Son
 (James and William H. Bown), Enterprise Gun Works 136-138 Wood St., Pittsburgh, Pa., from 1871; 121 Wood St. in 1883; bought out by Brown & Hirth in or before 1886. In 1883 advertised percussion fullstock rifles at $15, half stocks at $12 and $20, double rifles at $35, and double rifle shotguns at $30. "The only manufacturers of the CELEBRATED KENTUCKY RIFLES, which name was adopted by the senior member of this firm in 1848; ... all our Rifles have our name stamped on each barrel, and THIS STAMP." (KILL over, BUCK under, a buck facing left).
BOWN, William H.
 Son of James Bown, above. Born 1847 at Pitts burgh, Pa. See also Bown, James & Son, above.
BOYCE, T.
 Unlocated. Percussion underhammer pistol.
BOYD BREECH-LOADING ARMS CO.
 81 Washington St., and later 205 Broadway, Boston, Mass. 1870-72.
Boyd, Robert
Gunsmith of New Windsor, Ulster County, N. Y. With Henry Watkeys he contracted with Congress for one thousand muskets with steel ramrods and bayonets with scabbards at £3, 15sh, New York money each, June 13, 1775.
BOYD, Robert
 New Windsor, Ulster Co., N. Y., before and after 1772-76. Proposed to the Provincial Congress of New York (considered June 13, 1775), to furnish 1,000 muskets complete with steel ramrods, bayonets and scabbards at the price of 3 pounds, 15 shillings per stand, New York currency.
BOYER, D. (Daniel)
 Orwigsburg, Pa. 1790-1810. Son of M. Boyer.
BOYER, D. (David)
 Or wigsburg, Schuylkill Co., Pa. Maker of a flintlock (converted to percussion) Kentucky rifle, .47 caliber, barrel marked "D. BOYER," patchbox engraved in script "ORWIGSBURG DAVID BOYER"; related to, or possibly identical with D. (Daniel) Boyer? Lock marked "H. ELWELL WARRANTED." See also Elwell, Henry and Elwell, H.
BOYER, H.
 Lehigh, District, Pa., flintlock period.
BOYER, J.
 Pennsylvania, Kentucky rifle.
BOYER, M.
 Lehigh District, Pa., flintlock period, Father of D. Boyer.
BOYER, N.
 Lehigh District, Pa., flintlock period.
BOYINGTON, John S.
 South Coventry, Conn., late flintlock to early percussion. Patent breech percussion rifle.
BOZEMAN, David W.
 See Davis & Bozeman.
BRACKLOW, T.
 Marking on percussion, walnut stocked, bronze furniture, percussion rifle with Remington barrel and G. Goulcher lock.
BRADA, Conrad
 Baltimore, Md., 1860.
BRADLEY, R.
 Unlocated. Possibly Georgia. Late flintlock period Kentucky rifle.
Bradt, W, H.
Riflemaker of Leadville, Colorado, 1877-80.
BRADT, W. H.
 Leadville, Col, 1877-80.
BRAGG, Joseph C
 U. S. Inspector of Contract Arms, 1841-42, in plant of Nathan Starr.
BRAMMER, George L.
 Chesapeake, Ohio. Died Feb. 16, 1947, aged 85.
BRAND ARMS CO.
 Norwich, Conn., 1866-75. Whaling guns. See Brand, Christopher.
Brand, C. C.; Brand Arms Co.
Christopher C. Brand of Norwich, Conn., specialized in whaling guns but also produced other arms. Secured the following patents: May 19, 1857, whaling projectile, No. 17312. July 29, 1862, breech loading, No. 34989.Sept. 23, 1862, revolver, No. 36505.April 28, 1863, breech loading, No. 38279.April 28, 1863, breech loading, No. 38280.June 23, 1863, brccch loading, No. 38943   Active 1849 to 1875.
BRAND, Christopher Crandall
 Norwich, Conn, manufacturer of whaling guns and lance guns. Born Hopkinton, Rhode Island Nov. 20, 1813. Learned the ironworker's trade and in 1852 patented his first invention, an explosive whale-bomb. Operator of Brand Firearms Company at Norwich, 1852-1875; plant located at 112 Franklin St, 1866-72, then at 124 Franklin. Residence variously at 24 and 26 Broad. Also made patented shoulder bomb guns for the whaling trade and invented many improvements for whaling devices and more conventional arms. After his death the factory was operated by Junius A. Brand until 1890. Christopher Brand was the original donor and incorporator of the Norwich Free Academy in 1854.
BRANDAGEEZ
 Grahamsville, N. Y. Several generations made Kentucky rifles.
BRANG, Peter
 See Brong, Peter.
BRANNAN, Luke
 Paper Mill Street, Norwich, Conn, 1875. Pistol maker.
BRANT, Jacob F.
 Uniontown, Pa, gunsmith, 1820-1850.
BRASIRUS, Joseph
 Pennsylvania, flintlock period.
BRASIRUS, Peter
 Pennsylvania, flintlock period. Related to Joseph Brasirus?
BREICK, Henry W.
 Market St, (now No. 1008), San Francisco, Calif, 1847. Gunsmith shop back of hardware store. Died 1848.
BREIDENHART, Chris
 Pennsylvania. Kentucky Rifles.
Breidenhart, Christopher
Gunsmith repairman to the Penna. Committee of Safety 1775. (198, American Archives, 5th series, Vo!. 1.1776.)
BREIGLE, Jacob
 Union Township, Bedford Co., Pa., about 1860.
BRELSFORD
 Zanesville, Ohio, 1850-61. Son of Jonathan Brelsford.
Brelsford, Jonathan
Gunsmith of Zanesville, Muskingum County, Ohio, 1854-61. Specialty rifles.
BRELSFORD, Jonathan
 Zanesville, Muskigum Co. Ohio, 1814.
BRENNER, Martin
 Lancaster, Fairfield Co., Ohio, 1820-30.
BREY, Elias
 Pennsburg, Pa. Born Nov. 2, 1817, son of John Adam and Elizabeth Brey. Worked as a youth in Kraussdale machine shops. A bachelor, he later settled in Kraussdale with relatives until his death May 25, 1891. Made two styles of cane guns.
BRIDESBURG MACHINE WORKS
 Shops at Bridesburg, and Philadelphia, Pa. Musket contractors for Springfield muskets during the Civil War. There were 98,464 stands delivered of the 100,000 contracted for. Controlled by Alfred and Barton J. Jenks. See Jenks, A. & Son.
Bridesiburg Machine Works
Philadelphia, Pa. Alfred Jenks and his son Barton H. When the Civil War broke, the Jenks*, who had engaged in the manufacture of cotton and woolen mill machinery, quick to grasp an opportunity, “erected a huge building with four wings, having a length of 920 feet and equipped with the necessary machinery and driven by two engines, one of 150, and another of 80 horsepower“. They then embarked on a career of munitions making. in 1863 they were employing several hundred men and produced about 5000 Springfield muskets per month. Received contracts totaling 160,000 muskets of which they delivered 98,464 and collected $1,959,537- (pgs. 540-541, “Plistory of American Manufactures“, Bishop, Vol. II. Phila., 1864.)
BRIDGEWATER MFG. CO.
 North Bridgewater, Mass., July 26, 1813, Alpheus and Parmenas Brett "conveyed all rights, title and interest in and to the trip-hammer or water shop to the Bridge water Mfg. Co." It is not certain that this firm made arms, though a flintlock musket is known with lockplate marked with an eagle, "U. S.," "BRIDGWATER" and dated "1812." James Perkins of Bridgewater, in association with Adam Kinsley had a musket contract in 1808, and it is believed that this lockplate was their product.
BRIGGS, J.
 Ithaca, N. Y., percussion period
BRIGGS, N. A.
 Norwich, Conn. Flobert action target pistol.
Briggs, William
Norristown, Fenna., 1848-73. Produced all metal, percussion rifles and all-metal under-hammer shotguns, patent of August, 1859. Shop at 98 Main St.
BRIGGS, William
 Norristown, Pa., 1848-50.
BRIGH, Samuel
 Pennsylvania. Skilled maker of Kentucky rifles.
Bristol Fire Arms Co.
Bristol, Rhode Island. Forerunner of the Burnside Rifle Co., Providence, R. I. Secured government contract Sept. 2i, 1858, for 709 Burnside carbines at $35.00 A. E. Burnside of Providence, patent March 25, 1856.
BRISTOL FIRE ARMS CO.
 Bristol, R. I., makers of Burnside car bines. Organized by A. E. Burnside in 1855. The government purchased 200 breech-loading carbines from Burnside April 21, 1856, at $30.00 each, and 709 from Bristol F. A. Co., Sept. 21, 1858, at $35.00 each. Taken over by creditors in May, 1860, and reorganized. See Burnside Rifle Co.
BROCKWAY, C, JR.
 Elk Co., Pa. Reported maker of a curly maple, half stock rifle.
Brockway, Norman S.
Gunmaker of West Brookfield, Mass., and Bellows Falls, Vt., born March, 1841, died July 25, 1936. (pgs. 7, 8, 27, Vol. 84, No. 7, “Norman S. Brock way“, Cline, American Rifleman, July, 1936.)
BROCKWAY, Norman S.
 Born March 13, 1841, in South Charles town, N. H.; moved to Bellows Falls, Vt., in 1844. Worked at Springfield Armory during the Civil War; in February 1864 was put in charge of mainspring work at Norwich Arms Co., Norwich, Conn. In March 1865 he operated a turret lathe for Smith & Wesson. Returned to Bellows Falls in May 1866, set up shop, and began making rifles May 1, 1867. Made many fine heavy match rifles, both muzzle-loading and breech-muzzle-loading, regular or gain twist. Died at West Brookfield, Mass., July 25, 1936. Noted as a match shooter.
BRONG, Joseph
 Lancaster, Pa., flintlock period.
Brong, Peter
Riflcmaker of Lancaster, Penna. Shown on the census, “Heads of Families, Penna.“ 1790, and active until 1800 or later.
BRONG, Peter
 Also Brang. 700 No. Queen St., Lancaster, Pa., musket maker. Contracted with the State of Pennsylvania on April 17, 1801, for 500 Charleville pattern, (Model 1795) muskets. On July 13, 1801, in association with Abraham Henry and Henry DeHuff, proposed to furnish the State of Virginia with 7,075 stands of arms at $11.00 per stand, and 1,000 pair of pistols at $15.00 per pair delivery at Lancaster in three years. No record of contract being awarded.
Brooke, I. I. & N.
Penna. Secured government contract in 1808 for muskets “for arming the Militia“. A report dated October 7, 1812, indicates 1257 arms had been delivered.
BROOKE, J. J. & N.
 Listed in contracts as I. I. & N. Brooke. Penn sylvania musket makers. Contracted Nov. 1, 1808, for 4,000 Model 1808 muskets. There were 1,257 known to have been delivered by Oct. 7, 1812. Quite likely that arms were made for the Brookes' by Owen Evans with whom the Brookes family was associated. The Brookes' were probably located at Guelph Mills, about six miles east of Valley Forge. It was at Guelph Mills that Washing ton's army was encamped for about a week in December, 1777, just prior to going into winter quarters at Valley Forge.
Brooklyn Arms Co.
Brooklyn, N. Y. Produced F. P. Slocum’s patent April 14, 1863, No. 38204, revolvers.
BROOKLYN FIRE ARMS CO.
 Brooklyn, N. Y., about 1863-64. Makers of a front loading revolver with removable cylinder under Frank P. Slocum patent of April 15, 1863, No. 38,204. The arm was produced to avoid infringement of Smith & Wesson patents.
Brooks Arms & Tool Co*
Portland, Maine. Produced rifles, shotguns and hunting knives, 1892-93. C. C. Brooks.
Brooks, Francis
Riflemaker of Philadelphia, Penna., 1788-94.
BROOKS, J.
 Marking in script on a Lancaster, Pa., carved stock rifle circa 1780.
BROOKS, Richard
 (Or Brookes) Boston, Mass., 1675.
Brooks, William F.
New York, N. Y. Produced Gibb’s carbines. The government purchased 1052 of these arms at an average cost of $24.00, period 1861-65.
BROOKS, WM. F. MFG. CO.
 -New York, N. Y., 1861-65. Makers of Gibbs patent carbines, 1,052 of which were purchased by the government from May 30 to June 24, 1863.
Brown & Co., R. H.
New Haven, Conn. Established about 1883 at Westville, thence to New Haven about 1884. Made yacht cannon and shotguns until 1891 or later. Still active as tool manufacturers.
Brown & Francis
John Brown and John Francis, Hope Furnace, Rhode Island. Cannon founders of the United States. Secured contract August 8, 1794, for 94 cannon at $106.66 per ton.
BROWN & HIRTH
 Enterprise Gun Works, 520-522 Wood St., Pitts burgh, Pa., 1886. "Proprietors of the Enterprise Gun and Machine Works, and the only dealers in Pittsburgh or Allegheny County who manufacture their own gun barrels, and being the only parties who make the Celebrated Kentucky Muzzle-Loading Rifle." Successors to James Bown & Son (q. v.). Offered a com plete line of muzzle-loading and other arms, barrels, gunsmiths' tools and gun parts, ammunition, and sporting goods. See Enter prise Gun Works; August Hirth, and James Bown & Son.
Brown & Sons, James
T36-T38 Wood St., Pittsburgh, Penna. Produced shotguns 1874 or earlier to 1890 and after.
Brown Mfg. Co.
Newburyport, Mass., 1867-71. J. H. Brown. Produced Brown rifles, Ballard arms and Brown-Merrill alteration, patent October, 1871.
BROWN MFG. CO.
 Newburyport, Mass., 1869-73. Incorporated Feb. 18, 1869, and took over control of Merrimack Arms & Mfg. Co., makers of a bolt action rifle and arms under the Ballard patents. Operated by J. H. Brown. Also made "Southernor" cartridge derringer, manufactured with either brass or steel frames. The company went out of business July 23, 1873.
Brown, Andrew
Son of John. Gunmakcr at Fremont, New Hampshire, 1866-72.
BROWN, Andrew
 Fremont, N. H., 1866-72. Son of John Brown.
BROWN, Andrew J.
 Worcester, Mass., in 1852. Barrelmaker, mem ber of firm Allen, Brown, & Luther (q. v.).
BROWN, C. E.
 Unlocated. Over-under percussion rifle-shotgun.
BROWN, C. L.
 See Morris & Brown.
BROWN, Elisha
 Providence, R. I. Musket maker, active 1799-1801. Contracted under Act of July 5, 1798, for 1,000 Charleville pattern, (Model 1795) muskets at $13.40 per stand. Of these 775 were delivered by June 10, 1801.
Brown, F. Eben
611 Dartmouth St., S. Dartmouth, Mass. Produced whaling guns. Firm is active to date but have discontinued gun manufacture.
BROWN, F. P.
 (Or F. B.) Lancaster, Pa., late flintlock and early percussion rifle.
Brown, Ira
Gunsmith of Cincinnati, Ohio. A fine workman active1863-65, before and after.
BROWN, Ira
 Cincinnati, Ohio, 1863-65.
Brown, J. F.
Riflemaker of Haverhill, Mass., 1860-68, before and after.
BROWN, J. F.
 Haverhill, Mass.; percussion rifles.
BROWN, J. H.
 Dayton, Ohio, percussion rifle.
BROWN, J. H.
 See Brown Mfg. Co.
BROWN, J. N.
 Dayton, Ohio. Percussion Kentucky type rifle with lock by Bixler & Iddings, Lafayette, Ind.
BROWN, James
 Philadelphia, Pa. Listed as gunsmith on Front St., above Callowhill, in 1829.
BROWN, John
 Fremont, N. H., 1840-70. Fremont was known as Poplin until 1857. Percussion hunting and target rifles.
Brown, John Hamilton
Born in Liberty, Waldo Comity, Maine, July 28, 1837.^ At eighteen he entered upon an apprenticeship to a gunsmith in his native town. Remained in this connection after his apprenticeship was completed and worked principally upon target rifles. A profound student of arms design and construction, he designed the rifles employed by the American Team at Wimbledon, England, in 1883. Brown was a member and high scorer of this team which bested the British team. He was also a director of the American Rifle Association and captain of the New York Rifle dub. About 1857 he began experimenting with artillery’ design and about 1886 designed a '‘segmental tube, wire-bound” which was adapted to both army and navy service in 1891. The peculiar advantages of the Brown system of gun making are the subdividing of a core for the purpose of obtaining special elasticity thereby making it possible to set up a high degree of initial compression, that even under the highest pressure, the compression of the surface of the bore will not be reduced to zero. (Several references, National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, White, N. Y., 1920.)
Brown, John; Brown & Sons
Gunmakcr. Active Poplin, N. II. Poplin became Fremont. Active from about 1840 until 1865 as John Brown. Became J. Brown & Sons in 1865 and continued to about 1872.
BROWN, Jos. M. Co.
 San Francisco, Calif. Importers and dealers. Marking on a fullstock percussion "Bear Rifle" made by Leman, Lancaster, Pa.
BROWN, Reuben
 Nicholville, N. Y.; percussion rifles.
BROWN, W. H.
 Percussion rifle with "T. & C. NEAVE EXTRA" lock.
BROWN, W. H.
 Unlocated. Percussion rifle with lock by J. V. Hoffmann.
BROWN, WM. & SONS
 Pittsburgh, Pa., 1850-60.
BROWN. C. W.
 Unlocated. Over-under, mule ear, percussion rifle. (Same as C. E. Brown?)
BROWNING & BREMER
 651 Clay St, San Francisco, Calif., before and after. Gunmakers. Imported Clabrough & Bro., shotguns.
Browning Arms Co.; Browning, John Moses
Browning was born January 21, 1855, died November 26, 1926. Native of Ogden, Utah, son of Jonathan, a Mormon gunsmith, and Elizabeth Caroline Browning. At the age of 13 he made his first gun from odd parts left in his father’s shop. Secured his first patent in 1879 on a brccch- loading single-shot rifle. With his brother Mathew he made about 600 of these rifles. One of these arms came to the attention of Oliver Winchester with the result that an agreement was entered into and which has remained in effect to date. He designed many types of sporting firearms such as the well- known Remington Auto-Loading Shotgun, Winchester single-shot rifles, repeating rifles and shotguns, Stevens rifles and the Colt automatic pistols. Browning patented his repeating rifle in 1884, the box-magazine in 1895. In 1890 a machine gun of Browning design (though of Colt manufacture and known as the Colt) was adopted by the U. S. Army. It was used effectively during the Spanish-American W’ar and became known as the “Peacemaker”. Produced the Colt automatic pistol in 1896. It was later improved and adopted by the government, the present model being known as “Pistol, Automatic, Caliber .45, M191T.” The Browning Machine Gun, M1917; the Browning Automatic rifle, M1918; Browning Aircraft Machine Gun, M1918MI and M1919; Pistol Automatic, M1911, have been supplied the government in great numbers. The aircraft machine gun (the heavy type modified for use in aircraft) has a rate of fire of 1150-1250 shots per minute with a synchronizer to fire through the propeller blades. Browning, the foremost figure in the history of. small arms, never produced a failure nor has any arm of his design been discontinued. The Browning Arms Co., St. Louis, Mo., was formed in 1870 by John M. and M. S. Browning to promote the sale of Browning’s arms produced by the Fabrique National, Liege, Belgium, with which John had been associated for many years. He held more than 1100 arms patents. Died at Herstals, near Liege, November 26, 1926.
BROWNING JOHN M.
 John Moses Browning, world famed arms inventor and designer. Born in Ogden, Utah, son of Jonathan Browning, arms inventor and maker. Designed and whittled breech mechanisms in wood at fourteen and made his own and his brother's rifles before he was twenty. At twenty-four ob tained his first patent on a single-shot breech-loader. With his brother Matthew Sandefur Browning, organized Browning Brothers Company, the J. M. & M. S. Browning Company and the Browning Arms Company. The brothers with the aid of their half brothers, J. Edmund and T. Samuel Browning made six hundred rifles as their initial stock. These along with the patents was acquired by Winchester Arms Company. Subsequent Browning patents covered a wide field of repeating arms the Winchester Models '86, '90, '92, '94, '95, '06, Remington Models 81 and 241; repeating shotguns, Winchester and Remington as well as automatic pistols, machine guns and machine rifles names after the inventor. Browning arms were also made by Colt's and Fabrique Nationale d'Armes de Guerre of Liege, Belgium.
BROWNING, Abel S.
 Terra Alta, W. Va. Fine late Kentucky percussion rifle, auburn maple stock German silver mounted; Joseph Golcher lock, H. E. Leman barrel.
BROWNING, August
 San Francisco, Calif., gunsmith and rifle maker. 1887 before and after. In partnership with one Heber made the Browning-Heber rifles. Member of Browning & Bremer.
Browning, Jonathan
Father of John M. Browning. Born 1805. Established a gunshop in what is now Council Bluffs, Iowa. Here he developed a repeating rifle in 1831. In 1851 he captained a wagon train of Mormons across the plains and located permanently in Ogden, Utah. Died 1879. (“Great Guns 11” Browning Arms Co., St. Louis, 1935.)
BROWNING, Jonathan
 Tennessee gunsmith, 1805-1879. In his youth moved to Kentucky where he learned the gunsmith trade and opened his own shop. Later joined the Mormons and established his shop at Nauvoo, Illinois. Designed and forged by hand his first repeating rifle as early as 1831. Later moved his shop to Iowa, on Musquito Creek, eight miles south of Kanesville (near Coun cil Bluffs) and a half mile south of Trading Point. Here he located for two years. Advertised in the Kanesville "Frontier Guardian" Sept. 19, 1849, the manufacture of "revolving rifles and pistols, also slide-guns from five to 25 shooters." Made re peating rifles on the side feed and on the revolving cylinder principles. Moved to Ogden, Utah where he opened his shop in 1851. Here his famous son, John Moses Browning, firearms inventor and designer was born in 1855.
BROWNLOW'S ESTABLISHMENT
 Knoxville, Term., steam-power printing plant seized by Confederates about Nov. 26, 1861 and converted to a shop for "alteration of arms." Parson Brownlow (Brownslow in some reports) editor of Knoxville Whig and Inde pendent Journal, a strong Union man "left . . . and is abetting the enemy."
Brownop, James
Gunmaker of Philadelphia, Penna., 1779-80.
BROWNOP, James
 Philadelphia, Pa., 1779-80.

BRUCE & DAVIS
 Boston, Mass. Marking on double-barrel percussion pistols and Allen & Thurber type pistols. Believed to have been distributors who so marked arms which they handled for sale.
BRUFF, R. P.
 New York, N. Y., percussion derringers.
BRUNKER, Peter
 Ottawa, 111. Percussion rifles.
BRUNSON, Peter
 East Trumbull, O.
BRUSH, John
 Gunsmith and armorer in Colonial Williamsburg, Va., after 1729. Reportedly in London ca. 1700. Emigrated to Virginia with Governor Spotswood, 1729. Brush was the first keeper of the Colony's magazine and was employed to fire guns at the Governor's Palace in celebration of King's birthdays. An early inventory lists "1 bird piece by Brush, 1/00/00." His home is being rebuilt and furnished as it appeared in 1730's.
BRYAN, Daniel
 North Carolina, about 1800; made flintlock Ken tucky rifles. Nephew to Daniel Boone.
BRYAN, T.
 Die stamped marking "T. BRYAN" under barrel breech of Pennsylvania made, smoothbore "Kentucky fowler" circa 1770-80.
Bryant, Silas
Riflemaker. Active at Cincinnati, Ohio, 1818-2T.
BRYANT, Silas
 Walnut St., bet. 5th and 6th, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1818-29.
BRYCE
 Unidentified. Percussion revolver. Barrel swings up to re move cylinder for loading.
BRYCE & BUDD
 Unlocated. 1881. Damascus barrels, early hammer less, breechloading cartridge shotguns.
BUCHALEW
 South Rowlesburg, W. Va., percussion Kentucky rifle.
BUCHANAN, L.
 Unlocated. Fine flintlock Kentucky rifles.
BUCHMILLER, R.
 N. Queen St., Lancaster, Pa., 1869-70. Made percussion rifles from late 1840 or so.
Buck & Co., Henry A.
Manufacturers of Buck’s rifles and shotguns at West Stafford, Conn. Active but a short time, about 1881-83.
BUCK, Daniel
 Pennsylvania; early flintlock Kentucky rifles.
BUCK, H. A. & CO.
 West Stafford, Conn., about 1883. Manufactured Buck's single-shot breech-loading rifle.
BUCKINGHAM
 Delhi, N. Y., high grade, decorated percussion rifles.
BUCKLAND, E. H. & CO.
 Springfield, Mass., 1866-68.
Buckley, Anton
Riflemaker of Cincinnati, Ohio, 1854-64.
BUCKLEY, Anton
 Cincinnati, Ohio, 1860-64.
BUCKNER
 Maquoketa, Iowa.
BUCKWALTER, Abraham and Henry
 Lampeter Township, Lan caster Co., Pa., 1771-79.
Buckwalter, David B.
Born McConnellstown, Pa., August, 1850. Served an apprenticeship with a gunsmith by the name of Johnson. Established for himself at Antes Fort (Jersey Shore), Lycoming County, where he was active until 1885, thence to Houtsdalc until 1895- He was an exceptional craftsman of his period, in that he produced his own locks, trigger guards, escutcheons, ornamental finishings and stocks. He possessed two rifling machines and produced rifles, shotguns and pistols. Died Bcllwood, Pa., October, 1928.
BUCKWALTER, David B.
 Active at Antes Fort (later Jersey Shore) Lycoming Co., Pa., until about 1885, and later at Houtsdale until 1895. Maker of rifles, shotguns and pistols. Born 1850, died Bell wood, Pa., October, 1928.
BUCKWALTER, John
 Lampeter Township, Lancaster Co., Pa., 1771. Brother of Abraham and Henry Buckwalter.
Buddenhagen, John
Sandusky, Ohio. Made or assembled a few percussion rifles. Active 1866-86.
BUDDENHAGEN, John
 Sandusky, Ohio, 1869-86.
Buell, Colonel Elisha
A fine workman in iron and steel, he is known to have been active following the Revolution as a repairman. Entered into production in 1797 and the following year he contracted for model T795 muskets. The business prospered and in 1810 he established the principal gun factory of the vicinity “on Turnpike Road near the Methodist Church”, Marlborough, Conn. Commissioned a Colonel in the Militia and secured a number of government contracts during the War of 1812. Employed many hands and continued until between the years 1825-1830 when he was succeeded by his son General Enos Buell.
BUELL, Elisha
 Hebron, Conn. Made forty muskets for Privateer Oliver Cromwell; Oct. 11, 1776.
BUELL, Elisha
 Musket maker of Marlborough, Conn., established 1797. Made Model 1795 and Model 1808 muskets, the latter under contract of Nov. 13, 1808. Details unknown.
BUELL, Enos
 Son of Elisha above. Succeeded his father about 1825 and active until about 1850.
Buell, General Enos
Son and successor to the above. Succeeded to the control of the gun factory between the years 1825 and 1830 and active until 1850. Commissioned a Brigadier General in the State Militia following the War of 1812.
BUFFALO NEWTON RIFLE CORP'N
 Organized by Charles Newton at Buffalo, N. Y., about 1923, and moved to New Haven, Conn., about 1925, where Newton arms were made until about 1932, when Charles Newton died and the company ceased operations.
BUJAC & BENNETT
 New Orleans, La., shoulder arms machinery contractors to the Confederacy. In 1861 B. K. T. Bennett and Francis Lurgess were proprietors of New Orleans Foundry and Ornamental Iron Works, corner Magnolia and Erato Streets, New Orleans, La. Bennett of the firm with Bujac were erecting works with view to the manufacture of small arms, and according to the testimony would not take contracts for heavy guns. About April 25, 1862, in order to avoid capture by Union forces, the machin ery was loaded on a ship and taken to Montgomery, Alabama, where it was sold to the Alabama Arms Manufacturing Company on June 3, 1862. It was inspected by Col. James H. Burton of the Confederate Ordnance Dept., on June 14, 1862 with view to pur chase for C. S. A. Extract from Col. Burton's report: ". . . examined the machinery. Found it all exposed to weather, without any protection whatsoever, and in very bad order in consequence of not having been packed and boxed. The gun machines are of very cheap construction and not such as it would be advisable to introduce into a permanent Govt, establishment. . . . Decided not to take it." See Alabama Arms Mfg. Co. It would appear that some contractors of those days were also not above making a "quick dollar," even if a Confederate one.
BULL, Elijah
 On Turkey Creek, Morristown, Tenn. Percussion rifles.
BULL, Elisha
 North Carolina before and after 1821; flintlock Ken tucky rifles.
Bullard Engineering Works
Bridgeport, Conn. During the World War produced 4 155-mm. “G. P. F.” gun forgings per day. Active to date but discontinued ordnance.
Bullard Repeating Arms Co.
Springfield, Mass. Produced Bullard’s patent t886 rifles. Discontinued 1888-89.
BULLARD REPEATING ARMS CO.
 Springfield, Mass., about 1886 90. Makers of Bullard patent rifles. Bullard had been master mechanic for Smith & Wesson.
Bulow, Charles
Riflemaker of Lancaster, Penna., 1797.
BULOW, Charles
 Lancaster, Pa., about 1797.
BUNGE, C.
 Geneva, N. Y. Pill-lock revolving rifles and air rifles.
Bunsen, George W.
Revolver maker of Belleville, 111. Produced “My Friend” revolvers, patent of December 26, 1865.
BURD, C
 Philadelphia, Pa., flintlock period.
BURDEN, Calvin
 Gunsmith. Back of 110 Race, Phila., Pa., 1819.
BURDICK, S.
 Unlocated. About 1850-60.
BURGEN, F. A.
 Partner with George Schoyen, gunsmiths, Denver, Colo. 1887-1897.
Burgess Gun Co.
Buffalo, X. Y. Shotgun manufacturers active active1893-95
BURGESS GUN CO.
 Buffalo, N. Y., 1892-99. Single barrel repeating shotguns.
Burgess, Andrew
Owcgo, N. Y. Produced G. W. Morse patent October 28, 1856, repeating rifles which he exhibited at Philadelphia in 1876. Secured fifteen patents in 1887. Active 1874-1887 before and after.
BURKETT, A. H.
 Fairfield, Iowa, 1874. Double barrel rifle.
BURKHARD, Wm. R.
 St. Paul, Minn., about 1850.
BURNET, William
 Youngstown, Ohio, 1880-82.
BURNETT, F. L.
 Unlocated, flintlock period.
BURNETT, S. F.
 Unlocated. Percussion rifles.
Burnham, Elisha
Musket maker of Hartford, Conn., 1777-81.
BURNHAM, Elisha
 Cleaned and repaired public arms for Connecti cut. Account rendered in 1781.
BURNHAM, Elisha
 Hartford, Conn., 1777-81. (Same as above?)
BURNHAM, George
 Connecticut gunsmith. Worked on repair of public arms for the State, 1777-79.
BURNS & CO.
 Unlocated. Heavy barrel Kentucky type percussion rifle.
BURNS, Charles
 Bluffton, Ohio. Modern. Maker of heavy percussion match rifles.
BURNS, H.
 Dayton, Ohio. Maker of a brass and sliver mounted, per cussion Kentucky rifle of fine workmanship.
BURNS, Henry
 Lewisburg, Ohio, 1873-75.
BURNSIDE RIFLE CO.
 Providence, R. I. Organized by the creditors of the defunct Bristol Firearms Co., in May, 1860. Furnished 55, 567 Burnside patent carbines to the government during the Civil War. The firm also made Spencer carbines, 30,496 of which were furnished to the government from April 15, 1865, to Oct. 31, 1865, too late for use in the Civil War. These arms were used in Indian campaigns.
Burnside Riñe Co.
Providence, R. I. Successors to the Bristol Fire Arms Co. Manufacturers of A. E. Burnside patent March 25, 1856, carbines. Burnside was a resident of Bristol. During the period 1858-65, the government purchased 55,567 carbines paying $1,412,620.41.
BURR
 See Spiller & Burr.
Burt, A. M.
Produced 11,495 rifled Springfield muskets for the government during the Civil War.
BURT, A. M.
 Civil War musket maker, New York, N. Y. Contract of Dec. 26, 1861, for 50,000 Model 1861 Springfield rifle muskets at $20.00 each. Of these there were 11,495 delivered. Marked "Trenton."
Burton, Bethel
Brooklyn, N. Y. W. G. Ward and Burton secured a patent on the Ward-Burton bolt action rifle August, 1869. This arm was adopted by the Army and in use 1871-76. Both rifles and carbines were produced at Springfield Armory. On September 25, 1888, Burton secured patent on automatic machine gun, patent Ño. 390, 114. (pg. 27T, Official Gazette, U. S. Patent Office, 1888.)
BURTON, James H.
 Colonel Confederate Ordnance Dept. Employed at Harpers Ferry Armory in 1844 to become master armorer in 1854. Inventor of self-expanding bullet. Appointed Lieut. Colonel of Ordnance by Virginia in June 1861, and to same rank with title of Superintendent of Armories by the Confederate States in December of that year. Erected the captured Harpers Ferry Armory machinery at Virginia State Armory and went into production in ninety days. Died near Winchester, Va., Oct. 18, 1894.
Burton, L.
Gunmaker of Norwalk, Ohio, 1867-83.
BURTON, L.
 Norwalk, Ohio, 1871-83.
BUSCH, F. L.
 Lancaster, Pa., about 1770-1776. Early Kentucky flint lock rifles.
BUSCH, Oscar
 Union, Mo. Reported maker of a fine 15V2-lb. percussion, walnut halfstock German silver mounted rifle with back action lock. Bought in St. Louis in 1869.
BUSLER, James
 Lycoming Co., Pa. Late flintlock Kentucky rifles.
BUSWELL, J.
 Glen's Falls, N. Y., Over-under, percussion rifle and shotgun.
BUSWELL, M. L.
 Unlocated. Percussion Plains rifle. Also super posed rifle-shotgun.
Butler, John
A Committee of Safety musket maker of Lancaster, Peniia., 1775. Active 1778 or later.
BUTLER, John
 Lancaster, Pa., 1775-78. Musket maker to Pennsylvania. Committee of Safety.
Butler, Joseph
n8 Randolph St., Chicago, 111. Established 1857 and active until T884. Produced rifles and shotguns.
BUTLER, Joseph
 118 Randolph St., Chicago, 111., 1857-84.
Butler, Sugden & Co.
Rocky Hill, Conn. Promoted the production of Wm. S. Butler’s pistol, patent of February 3, 1857, Xo. 16571.
Butler, Thomas
Probably of Lancaster, Penna. He was public armourer under the Board Of War being succeeded April 23rd, 1778, by William Henry of Lancaster, Penna.
BUTLER, Thomas
 Lancaster, Pa., about 1775. Succeeded as "public armourer" in April, 1778, by William Henry of Lancaster.
BUTLER, William S.
 Unlocated. 1857. Percussion pistols.
BUTT, D. W.
 Partner of George Schoyen, gunsmiths, Denver, Colo., 1885-87.
Butterfield, Elon B.
Patented “many chambered” firearms March 16, 1839.
Butterfield, Jesse S.
Philadelphia, Penna. inventor of the rare Butterfield revolver. Active 1854-65. Patent of December 11, 1855.
BUTTERFIELD, Jesse S.
 Philadelphia, Pa. Manufacturer of Butter field patent revolvers during the Civil War. Patentee of the Butterfield mechanical disc primer used on the revolvers. The disc primers of the Butterfield system were also used in conver sion of flintlock muskets to percussion.
BUTTERFIELD, L.
 Lynn, Mass.; percussion rifles.
Butterfield, Levi
Lynn, Mass., gunmaker, active 1857-68.
BUXTON, Alfred C.
 Manufacturer of Buxton single-trigger over and-under shot gun and rifle. Born Castleton, Mich., April 23, 1843; died Nashville, Mich., Nov. 30, 1924.
BYERS, N.
 Pennsylvania, 1800.
Byrkit, A. H
Fairfield, Iowa. Produced over and under rifles, patent 1874. Active 1867-75, before and after.
BYRKIT, A. H.
 Fairfield, Iowa, about 1874. Two barrelled rifle.


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